Birch leaves develop brown, inflated blotches by mid to late spring. Leaves may be killed by small larvae inside the leaves that devour green tissues between the upper and lower surfaces. A severely infested tree canopy takes on a tan-brown appearance and defoliates prematurely. Repeated years of infestation can cause branch die-back and leave trees more vulnerable to borers and environmental stress.
Boxwood Leafminer are small flies that attack several varieties of boxwood, causing the usually dense foliage to appear weak and lackluster. These pests can kill boxwood twigs and cause mature plants to become susceptible to other diseases, including winter-kill in colder climates.